Market Power Europe vs Normative Power Europe

Given the European Union’s unique historical background and institutional characteristics, as well as the size of its internal market, several theories have been developed to explain the externalisation of EU internal interests. These include normative power, trade power, ethical power, civilian power, and hard power. This essay considers two of the theories—normative power Europe and... Continue Reading →

What Types of Power Does the EU Have?

Power is an abstract idea that exists in a relational context. In essence, it refers to the ability for state X to influence state Y to behave in a specific way, which would not happen otherwise. Traditionally, scholars have talked of soft power and hard power, referring to civilian power and military power. This concept... Continue Reading →

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