EU’s Overseas Official Development Assistance to Vietnam

In 2018, the EU, together with its Member States, was the third-largest development assistance donors for Vietnam, with a total amount of €425 million (18.1% of all ODA disbursements). Among many things, the EU budget has particularly been instrumental in: installing/upgrading 395 health centres,immunising at least 97% of children under 1 year of age,expanding health... Continue Reading →

Competitiveness Analysis: The Netherlands

The Netherlands is the most competitive country in Europe, according to the Global Competitiveness Report 2019. The country shows consistently high levels of performance in macroeconomic stability, health and infrastructure quality. The Dutch people benefit from a highly developed innovation ecosystem, supported by a highly skilled workforce, vibrant business dynamism and advanced innovation capability. The... Continue Reading →

The development of ECJ case law on the fundamental political status of Union citizenship

Discussion on the fundamental political status of Union citizenship demands a careful examination in two dimensions. The first dimension is the role of EU citizenship as a legal status, particularly within the framework of the intergovernmental agreement reached by the Member States but endowed with supranational institutions—including the ECJ—which operate autonomously. This dimension has a... Continue Reading →

National Constitutional Courts’ varying claims to review possible infringements by EU law

Hoffmeister (2007) categorises 27 EU MS into five theoretical models in regards to their procedures of ratifying EU treaties. The first group of countries apply their constitutional provisions as regards the ratification of international treaties irrespective of the unique nature of the European Union. The second group of countries (limitation of sovereignty) recognise that sovereignty... Continue Reading →

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